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C (/ ˌ s iː ˌ p l ʌ s ˈ p l ʌ s /) is a general-purpose programming language created by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension of the C programming language, or 'C with Classes'.The language has expanded significantly over time, and modern C now has object-oriented, generic, and functional features in addition to facilities for low-level memory manipulation. These are the top rated real world C# (CSharp) examples of OpenSSL.Crypto.DSA extracted from open source projects. You can rate examples to help us improve the quality of examples. Programming Language: C# (CSharp) Namespace/Package Name: OpenSSL.Crypto. Class/Type: DSA. I have to use Crypto (OpenSSL) in my C# project, I could use all the symmetric ciphers and the message digests but i could'n use the RSA. Please, does any one know how to use it? In the C programming language, operations can be performed on a bit level using bitwise operators. Bitwise operations are contrasted by byte-level operations which characterize the bitwise operators' logical counterparts, the AND, OR and NOT operators.

Vietnam War-era P-38 can opener. U.S. one cent coin shown for size comparison.

The P-38, developed in 1942,[1] is a small can opener that was issued in the canned field rations of the United States Armed Forces from World War II to the 1980s. Originally designed for and distributed in the K-ration, it was later included in the C-ration. As of 2020, it is still in production and sold on a worldwide market.[2]


P-38 can opener measured by digital calipers. It is 38.31 millimetres (1.508 in).

The P-38 is known as a 'John Wayne' by the United States Marine Corps, because of its toughness and dependability.[3][unreliable source?][citation needed] The can opener is pocket-sized, approximately 1.5 inches (38 mm) long, and consists of a short metal blade that serves as a handle, with a small, hinged metal tooth that folds out to pierce the can lid.

A notch just under the hinge point keeps the opener hooked around the rim of the can as the device is 'walked' around to cut the lid out. A larger version called the P-51 is somewhat easier to operate. The handle portion can also double as a makeshift flat-blade screwdriver, with limited ability because of the rather soft sheet metal used.

Official military designations for the P-38 include 'US ARMY POCKET CAN OPENER' and 'OPENER, CAN, HAND, FOLDING, TYPE I'. As with some other military terms, e.g., 'jeep', the origin of the term is not known with certainty; the P-38 opener coincidentally shares a designation with the Lockheed P-38 Lightning fighter plane, which could allude to its fast performance, additionally the P-51 can opener also has an aircraft namesake in the North American P-51 Mustang.[1]

One technical explanation for the origin of the name is that the P-38 is approximately 38 millimetres long. This explanation also holds for the P-51, which measures approximately 51 mm (2.0 in) in length. However, use of the metric system in the US was not widespread at this point, and United States Army sources indicate that the origin of the name is rooted in the 38 punctures around the circumference of a C-ration can required for opening.[1]

Size comparison of P-51 and P-38 openers

P-38s are no longer used for individual rations by the United States Armed Forces, as canned C-rations were replaced by MRE rations in the 1980s, packed in plastic pouches. The larger P-51s are included with United States military 'Tray Rations' (canned bulk meals). They are also still seen in disaster recovery efforts and have been handed out alongside canned food by rescue organizations, both in America and abroad in Afghanistan.

The original U.S.-contract P-38 can openers were manufactured by J.W. Speaker Corporation of Germantown, Wisconsin[4] (stamped 'Speaker USA') and by Washburn Corporation (marked 'US Androck'); they were later made by Mallin Shelby Hardware inc (defunct 1973) of Shelby, Ohio and were variously stamped 'US Mallin Shelby O.' or 'U.S. Shelby Co.'

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The P-38 is cheaper to manufacture than a standard can opener, and is smaller and lighter to carry. The device can be easily attached to a keychain or dog tag chain using the small punched hole.


A U.S. Army C-ration with can opener, Da Nang, Vietnam, c 1966–1967.

The P-38 is easily used. First, the cutting point is pivoted to its 95-degree position,[5] from its stowed, folded position. Then, for a right-handed user, the P-38 is held in the right hand by the flat long section, with the cutting point pointing downward and away from the user, while also hooking the edge of the can through the circular notch located on the flat long section next to the cutting edge. The can is held in the left hand, and the right hand is rotated slightly clockwise, causing the can lid to be punctured.

The can is then rotated counter-clockwise in the left hand, while the right hand rotates alternatively slightly counter-clockwise and slightly clockwise, until the can has been rotated nearly 360 degrees and the lid is nearly free. The lid of the now opened can is lifted, most often with the P-38 cutting edge, and the P-38 is wiped clean, and the cutting point is rotated back to its stowed, folded position. The P-38 is then returned to its stored location, whether that is dangling on a dog tag chain around one's neck, or in one's pocket if the P-38 is attached to a key ring.

Left-handed users simply hold the P-38 in their left hand, with the cutting point aimed towards themselves, while holding the can to be opened in their right hand, while also reversing the sense of the cutting hand movements just described. By tradition, 38 cuts as just described were supposedly required to open a can of C-Rations.

A left-handed user is at a slight disadvantage in that the tip of the thumb (instead of the lateral flank of the distal index finger) must apply the combined travel & twist forces. Righties' thumbs take only the twist force.

Bitwise operations in C - Wikipedia

Similar devices[edit]

A standard issue 'FRED' can opener of the Australian Defence Force.

A similar device that incorporates a small spoon at one end and a bottle opener at the other is currently employed by the Australian Defence Force and New Zealand Army in its ration kits. The Field Ration Eating Device is known by the acronym 'FRED'. It is also known widely in its derogative term, the 'Fucking Ridiculous Eating Device'.[6][7]

Another similar device was included with British Army 'Operational Ration Pack, General Purpose' 24-hour ration pack and 'Compo' Composite (14 man) Ration pack rations. At one stage they were manufactured by W.P. Warren Engineering Co. Ltd, Birmingham, England. The instructions printed on the miniature greaseproof paper bag they were supplied in read:

Place opener on the can with rim of can inside the slot. Hold between thumb and forefinger and twist forward to puncture. Repeat motion until can is open.

It takes approximately 38 twists to fully open a C-ration can. Their design is similar, but not identical, to the P-38 and P-51 can openers.

The Swedish army also employed a similar variant of this opener. Its official designation is M7481-021000 Konservbrytare Mini which was distributed with the notorious 'Golden Cans' (Swedish field rations were packaged in metallic tins with a golden hue). In 1924, a similar device was featured in Popular Mechanics, with no mention of a military provenance.[8]

An opener similar to the P-38, but with a non-folding blade, was popular in Poland for years. It can still be found in shops as well as the butterfly-type openers.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ abcFoster, Renita (2009-08-11). 'The best Army invention ever'. www.army.mil. US Army. Retrieved 2014-12-19.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. ^'Buy P38 or P51 Can Opener at Army Surplus World Army Surplus World'. www.armysurplusworld.com. Retrieved 2020-01-04.
  3. ^'P38 Can Opener'. Retrieved 16 June 2015.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^'Small Wonder'. Milwaukee Magazine. Retrieved 29 November 2016.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. ^'MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS AND DRAWINGS FOR P-38 AND P-51 CAN OPENERS'. www.georgia-outfitters.com.
  6. ^Hardiman, Graeme. 'The Malayan Emergency. 2RAR 1956/57'. Digger History: an unofficial history of the Australian & New Zealand Armed Forces. Retrieved 2007-11-05.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. ^'Australian Ration pack Contents'. Ration Pack. Australian Defence News & Opinion. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2007-11-05.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  8. ^'Women's Workshop'. Popular Mechanics. April 1924. Retrieved 2016-05-26.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)

External links[edit]

Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=P-38_can_opener&oldid=1008744471'
Rev G. Campbell Morgan in 1907
Morgan in later years

Reverend Doctor George Campbell MorganD.D. (9 December 1863 – 16 May 1945) was a Britishevangelist, preacher, a leading Bible teacher, and a prolific author.

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A contemporary of Rodney 'Gipsy' Smith, Morgan preached his first sermon at age 13. He was the pastor of Westminster Chapel in London from 1904 to 1919, pausing for 14 years to teach at Biola in Los Angeles, and returning to the Chapel from 1933 to 1943 when he handed over the pastorate to the renowned Martyn Lloyd-Jones, after having shared it with him and mentored him for some years previous. From 1911-1914 he was the president of Cheshunt College, Cambridge.[1]


Morgan was born on a farm in Tetbury, England, the son of Welshman George Morgan and Elizabeth Fawn Brittan. His father was a member of the strict Plymouth Brethren but resigned and became a Baptist minister. He was very sickly as a child, could not attend school, and so was tutored at home.[2]

When Campbell was 10 years old, D. L. Moody came to England for the first time. His ministry, combined with the dedication of his parents, made such an impression on young Morgan that at the age of 13 he preached his first sermon. Two years later he was preaching regularly in country chapels during his Sundays and holidays.

By 1883 he was teaching in Birmingham. However, in 1886, at the age of 23, he left the teaching profession and devoted himself to preaching and Bible exposition. He was ordained to the Congregational ministry in 1890. He had no formal training for the ministry, but his devotion to studying the Bible made him one of the leading Bible teachers of his day. His reputation as preacher and Bible expositor grew throughout Britain and spread to the United States.

In 1896 Moody invited him to lecture to the students at the Moody Bible Institute. This was the first of 54 visits to America to preach and teach. After the death of Moody in 1899 Morgan assumed the position of director of the Northfield Bible Conference. He was given a Doctor of Divinity degree by the Chicago Theological Seminary in 1902.[2] After five successful years in this capacity, he returned to England in 1904 and became pastor of Westminster Chapel in London. During two years of this ministry he was President of Cheshunt College in Cambridge.[3] His preaching and weekly Friday night Bible classes were attended by thousands. In 1910 Morgan contributed an essay entitled The Purposes of the Incarnation to the first volume of The Fundamentals, 90 essays which are widely considered to be the foundation of the modern Fundamentalist movement.

Leaving Westminster Chapel in 1919, he once again returned to the United States, where he conducted an itinerant preaching and teaching ministry for 14 years. He returned to England in 1933, where he again became pastor of Westminster Chapel and remained there until his retirement in 1943. He was instrumental in bringing Martyn Lloyd-Jones to Westminster in 1939 to share the pulpit and become his successor. Morgan was a friend of F. B. Meyer, Charles Spurgeon, and many other great preachers of his day.[2]

Morgan died on 16 May 1945, at the age of 81.

Replacement Theology[edit]

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For most of his life Campbell Morgan taught the dispensational view on Israel and the Jews, but towards the end of his life he changed his views to Replacement Theology.

He wrote this in a letter in 1943: 'I am quite convinced that all the promises made to Israel are found, are finding and will find their perfect fulfillment in the church. It is true that in time past, in my expositions, I gave a definite place to Israel in the purposes of God. I have now come to the conviction, as I have just said, that it is the new and spiritual Israel that is intended.' (Letter to Rev. H. F. Wright, New Brunswick, Victoria.[4]


Morgan was a prolific author, writing about 80 works in his lifetime. This number does not include the 10-volume set of sermons, 'The Westminster Pulpit,' as well as sermons that were published independently as booklets and pamphlets, nor the posthumous works. He wrote commentaries on the entire Bible, and on many devotional topics related to the Christian life and ministry.

His essay entitled 'The Purposes of the Incarnation' was included in a famous and historic collection called The Fundamentals, a set of 90 essays edited by the famous R. A. Torrey, who himself was successor to D. L. Moody both as an evangelist and pastor. The Fundamentals is widely considered to be the foundation of the modern Fundamentalist movement.

His most important works include:

  • Discipleship (1897)
  • The True Estimate of Life and How to Live (1897)
  • God's Methods with Man in Time: Past Present and Future (1898)
  • Wherein Have We Robbed God? Malachi’s Message for the Men of Today (1898)
  • The Hidden Years at Nazareth (1898)
  • Life's Problems (1899)
  • The Spirit of God (1900)
  • All Things New, A Message to New Converts (1901)
  • The Ten Commandments (1901)
  • God's Perfect Will (1901)
  • Missionary Work. Why We Must Do it How We Must... (1901)
  • A First Century Message to Twentieth Century Christians (1902)
  • The Letters of Our Lord (1902)
  • To Die is Gain (1903)
  • The Crises of the Christ (1903)
  • Lessons of the Welsh Revival (1904)
  • Evangelism (1904)
  • The Life of the Christian (1904)
  • The Christ of Today: What? Whence? Whither? (1905)
  • The Practice of Prayer (1906)
  • The Parables of the Kingdom (1907)
  • The Simple Things of the Christian Life (1907)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 1 (Genesis to Esther) (1907)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 2 (Job to Malachi) (1908)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 3 (Matthew to Revelation) (1908)
  • Christian Principles (1908)
  • Mountains and Valleys in the Ministry of Jesus (1908)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 4 (The Gospel According to John) (1909)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 5 (The Book of Job) (1909)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 6 (The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Romans) (1909)
  • The Missionary Manifesto (1909)
  • The Bible and the Cross (1909)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 7 (The Prophecy of Isaiah v.1) (1910)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 8 (The Prophecy of Isaiah v.2) (1910)
  • The Study and Teaching of the English Bible (1910)
  • The Purposes of the Incarnation (1910)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 9 (The Book of Genesis) (1911)
  • The Analyzed Bible vol. 10 (The Gospel According to Matthew) (1911)
  • Living Messages of the Books of the Bible, Vol. 1: Old Testament (1912)
  • Living Messages of the Books of the Bible, Vol. 2: Old Testament (1912)
  • Sunrise, 'Behold, He Cometh!': An Introduction to a Study of the Second Advent (1912)
  • The Teaching of Christ (1913)
  • God, Humanity and the War (1914)
  • The Ministry of the Word (1919)
  • The Bible in Five Years (1922)
  • The Acts of the Apostles (1924)
  • Searchlights from the Word; Being 1188 Sermon-Suggestions, One from Every Chapter in the Bible (1926)
  • The Gospel According to Mark (1927)
  • The Romance of the Bible (1928)
  • Christ and the Bible (1929)
  • Categorical Imperatives of the Christian Faith (1930)
  • Divine Guidance and Human Advice (1930)
  • Great Themes of the Christian Faith, as presented by G. Campbell Morgan, and others (1930)
  • The Bible and the Child (1931)
  • Two Principles of Magna Charta (1931)
  • The Gospel According to Luke (1931)
  • Life: A Quest and the Way of Conquest (1932)
  • The Purpose of the Gospel (1934)
  • Hosea, The Heart and Holiness of God (1934)
  • Studies in the Prophecy of Jeremiah (1934)
  • The Answer of Jesus to Job (1935)
  • Great Chapters of the Bible (1935)
  • God's Last Word to Man, Studies in Hebrews (1936)
  • The Great Physician; The Method of Jesus with Individuals (1937)
  • Peter and the Church (1937)
  • Preaching (1937)
  • The Bible Four Hundred Years After 1538 (1938)
  • Voices of Twelve Hebrew Prophets, Commonly Called the Minor Prophets, (1939)
  • The Voice of the Devil (1941)
  • The Parables and Metaphors of Our Lord (1942)
  • The Triumphs of Faith (1944)
  • The Music of Life (1944)


  • The Corinthian Letters of Paul (1946)
  • Notes on the Psalms (1947)
  • The Parable of the Father's Heart (1947)
  • This Was His Faith: The Expository Letters of G. Campbell Morgan (1952)
  • The Westminster Pulpit: the Preaching of G. Campbell Morgan, vol. 1-10 (1954, Publisher: Baker Book House)
  • An Exposition of the Whole Bible (1959)
  • The Unfolding Message of the Bible (1961)
  • The Birth of the Church (1968)

Contributions to other titles:

  • Gipsy Smith: His Life and Work (1909, Introduction to the American edition)


  • G. Campbell Morgan, Bible Teacher: A Sketch of the Great Expositor and Evangelist by Harold Murray (1938)
  • A Man of the Word, Life of G. Campbell Morgan by Jill Morgan (1951)
  • The Expository Method of G. Campbell Morgan by Don M. Wagner


  1. ^Welch, Edwin (1979). Archives of Cheshunt College, Cambridge. Swift Printers (Sales). Retrieved 9 August 2018.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. ^ abc'Biography of G. Campbell Morgan'. Pleasantplaces.biz. 1945-05-16. Archived from the original on 2011-08-24. Retrieved 2011-10-30.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. ^''George Campbell Morgan, 1863-1945, Bible Teacher' on Believers Web'. Believersweb.org. Retrieved 2011-10-30.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^Hughes, Archibald (1958). A New Heaven and a New Earth. Box 185, Nutley, N.J.: Presbyterian and Reformed Press.CS1 maint: location (link)
  • Reynolds, Francis J., ed. (1921). 'Morgan, G. Campbell' . Collier's New Encyclopedia. New York: P. F. Collier & Son Company.
  • Some content comes from Theopedia.com (G. Campbell Morgan), and is under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license. More information on this license is available at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/


  • Murray, Harold. G. Campbell Morgan: Bible Teacher. Ambassador-Emerald International, 1999. ISBN1-84030-046-9

External links[edit]

  • Works by or about G. Campbell Morgan at Internet Archive
  • Works by G. Campbell Morgan at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
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