(Let’s Encrypt provides a free, 3-month SSL certificate). 1) Log into your NAS, and navigate to Control Panel Security Certificate. 2) Choose “Add a new certificate”. 3) Choose “Get a certificate from Let’s Encrypt”. Now we're going to do some initial setup for Let's Encrypt. Openssl genrsa 4096 account.key openssl genrsa 4096 domain.key. Next, replace 'yoursite.com' with your edge routers FQDN. Openssl req -new -sha256 -key domain.key -subj '/CN=yoursite.com' domain.csr. Create and export a Let’s Encrypt Wildcard SSL certificate in a PFX format May 8, 2020 - by Zsolt Agoston - last edited on May 20, 2020 In this short guide we have create a free Let's Encrypt wildcard certificate. The Let's Encrypt certificate authority is the centerpiece of an effort by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) to encrypt the entire internet. In line with that goal, Let's Encrypt host certificates are designed to be created, validated, installed, and maintained with minimal human intervention.
- Openssl Encrypt Private Key
- Openssl Encrypt Large File
- Use Openssl To Encrypt File
- Letsencrypt Openssl Verify
- Letsencrypt Openssl S_client
- Letsencrypt Openssl How To
Let’s Encrypt is a free Certificate Authority (CA) that issues SSL certificates. You can use these SSL certificates to secure traffic to and from your Bitnami application host.
This guide walks you through the process of generating a Let’s Encrypt SSL certificate for your domain and installing and configuring it to work with your Bitnami application stack.
IMPORTANT: The steps described in this guide are applicable to all Bitnami applications, with the following exceptions:
- Bitnami GitLab: Use the Bitnami GitLab guide instead
- Bitnami Mattermost: Use the Bitnami Mattermost guide instead
Assumptions and prerequisites
This guide assumes that:
- You have deployed a Bitnami application and the application is available at a public IP address so that the Let’s Encrypt process can verify your domain.
- You have the necessary credentials to log in to the Bitnami application instance.
- You own one or more domain names.
- You have configured the domain name’s DNS record to point to the public IP address of your Bitnami application instance.
Use the Bitnami HTTPS Configuration Tool
IMPORTANT: The Bitnami HTTPS Configuration Tool does not support IPv6 addresses or NGINX web servers yet. If you use IPv6 addresses, please disable them before proceeding. If you use NGINX, please follow the alternative approach section.
The Bitnami HTTPS Configuration Tool is a command line tool for configuring mainly HTTPS certificates on Bitnami stacks, but also common features such as automatic renewals, redirections (e.g. HTTP to HTTPS), etc. This tool is located in the installation directory of the stack at /opt/bitnami.
NOTE: Before using the Bitnami HTTPS configuration tool, ensure that your domain’s DNS configuration correctly reflects the host’s IP address and that you are not using IPv6 addresses. You can update your domain’s DNS configuration through your DNS provider.
To launch the Bitnami HTTPS Configuration Tool, execute the following command and follow the prompts:
Refer to our guide for more information on this, or if you can’t find the tool in your Bitnami stack.
NOTE: The Bitnami HTTPS Configuration Tool will automatically create a cron job to renew your certificate(s). By default, if the bitnami user account exists on the system, the cron jobs will be added under that user account. To view and modify the cron job, use the command sudo crontab -u bitnami -l.
If you prefer to manually generate and install Let’s Encrypt certificates, follow this alternative approach.
In case the certificate generation process fails and/or you wish to reset the certificates for any reson, follow the steps below:
Remove the cron jobs in the root and bitnami user’s cron table. Run the following commands and remove any lines/commands related to certificate renewal:
Modify the Web server configuration file to use the original server.crt and server.key certificates (these are not renamed or moved by the Bitnami HTTPS Configuration Tool). Alternatively, restore the original Web server configuration file, which is backed up by the tool as bitnami.conf.back.DATE in the same directory.
Restart all Bitnami services:
IMPORTANT: Users will see SSL certificate warnings when accessing the website while the dummy certificates are in use. These warnings will disappear after valid SSL certificates are installed for the website.
NOTE: We are in the process of modifying the file structure and configuration for many Bitnami stacks. On account of these changes, the file paths stated in this guide may change depending on whether your Bitnami stack uses native Linux system packages (Approach A), or if it is a self-contained installation (Approach B). To identify your Bitnami installation type and what approach to follow, run the command below:
The output of the command indicates which approach (A or B) is used by the installation, and will allow you to identify the paths, configuration and commands to use in this guide. Refer to the FAQ for more information on these changes.
If your Bitnami image does not include the auto-configuration script or the /opt/bitnami/letsencrypt/ directory, you can manually install the Lego client and generate and install the Let’s Encrypt certificates. Follow the steps below.
Step 1: Install the Lego client
The Lego client simplifies the process of Let’s Encrypt certificate generation. To use it, follow these steps:
Log in to the server console as the bitnami user.
Run the following commands to install the Lego client. Note that you will need to replace the X.Y.Z placeholder with the actual version number of the downloaded archive:
These steps will download, extract and copy the Lego client to a directory in your path.
Step 2: Generate a Let’s Encrypt certificate for your domain
NOTE: Before proceeding with this step, ensure that your domain name points to the public IP address of the Bitnami application host.
The next step is to generate a Let’s Encrypt certificate for your domain.
Turn off all Bitnami services:
Request a new certificate for your domain as below, both with and without the www prefix.
IMPORTANT: Replace the DOMAIN placeholder with your actual domain name, and the EMAIL-ADDRESS placeholder with your email address.
NOTE: You can use more than one domain (for example, DOMAIN and www.DOMAIN) by specifying the --domains option as many times as the number of domains you want to specify. When supplying multiple domains, Lego creates a SAN (Subject Alternate Names) certificate which results in only one certificate valid for all domains you entered. The first domain in your list will be added as the “CommonName” of the certificate and the rest, will be added as “DNSNames” to the SAN extension within the certificate.
Agree to the terms of service.
A set of certificates will now be generated in the /opt/bitnami/letsencrypt/certificates directory. This set includes the server certificate file DOMAIN.crt and the server certificate key file DOMAIN.key.
IMPORTANT: For security reasons, never post or disclose your server’s SSL private key file in a public forum.
An output message will provide some information, including the expiry date of the certificate. Note this expiry date carefully as you will need to renew your certificate before that date in order for it to remain valid.
An example certificate is shown below:
NOTE: The steps described above will generate certificates for one or more explicitly-named domains. To generate a certificate for a wildcard domain, you will need to use DNS-01 validation when running the lego tool, as explained in the official Let’s Encrypt documentation.
Step 3: Configure the Web server to use the Let’s Encrypt certificate
Next, tell the Web server about the new certificate, as follows:
Openssl Encrypt Private Key
Link the new SSL certificate and certificate key file to the correct locations, depending on which Web server you’re using. Update the file permissions to make them readable by the root user only.
IMPORTANT: Remember to replace the DOMAIN placeholder with your actual domain name.
For Apache under Approach A (Bitnami installations using system packages):
For Apache under Approach B (Self-contained Bitnami installations):
For NGINX under Approach A (Bitnami installations using system packages):
For NGINX under Approach B (Self-contained Bitnami installations):
TIP: To find out if your Bitnami stack uses Apache or NGINX, check the output of the command sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh status.
Restart all Bitnami services:
To add one or more domains to an existing certificate, simply repeat Steps 2 and 3 again, ensuring the same order of domain names is maintained in the lego command and adding the new domain name(s) to the end with additional –domains arguments.
Openssl Encrypt Large File
Step 4: Test the configuration
After reconfirming that your domain name points to the public IP address of the Bitnami application instance, you can test it by browsing to https://DOMAIN (replace the DOMAIN placeholder with the correct domain name).
This should display the secure welcome page of the Bitnami application. Clicking the padlock icon in the browser address bar should display the details of the domain and SSL certificate.
Step 5: Renew the Let’s Encrypt certificate
Let’s Encrypt certificates are only valid for 90 days. To renew the certificate before it expires, run the following commands from the server console as the bitnami user. Remember to replace the DOMAIN placeholder with your actual domain name, and the EMAIL-ADDRESS placeholder with your email address.
To automatically renew your certificates before they expire, write a script to perform the above tasks and schedule a cron job to run the script periodically. To do this:
Create a script at /opt/bitnami/letsencrypt/scripts/renew-certificate.sh
Enter the following content into the script and save it. Remember to replace the DOMAIN placeholder with your actual domain name, and the EMAIL-ADDRESS placeholder with your email address.
Make the script executable:
Execute the following command to open the crontab editor:
Add the following lines to the crontab file and save it:
NOTE: If renewing multiple domains, remember to update the /opt/bitnami/letsencrypt/renew-certificate.sh script to include the additional domain name(s) in the lego command.
In case the certificate generation process fails or you wish to start again for any reason, run the commands below to delete the generated output, replace the previous certificates and restart services. You can then go back to Step 1. It is important to note that doing this will delete any previously-generated certificates and keys.
If you created a cron job for certificate renewal, remove it by opening the crontab editor using the command below and removing the line added for the certificate renewal script:
To learn more about the topics discussed in this guide, consider visiting the following links:
As we are moving towards CI and CD, it’s very important to have same environment configuration for different type of environments. In this post, I will explain a common problem related to local dev environment and valid SSL certificate.
When we use self signed certificate to enable SSL support for our applications in Local Dev environment, we face issue related to validity of that certificate. In order to fix the issue we have to do lots of work around like adding CA certificate in your trust store or ignoring the warning by browser etc. However, you can get a valid certificate from any valid Certificate Authority and that will make everything go away. Let’s Encrypt is open source valid Certificate Authority which we are going to use in this case.
- Heroku Account (Free account is good enough for this purpose)
- Python 2.7 or greater
- Git CommandLine Desktop version has option to install command line as well
- Install certbot in your machine. I am going to use MacOS here, however the steps (except installation) would be same for any other operating system. You can run following command in MacOSX
Step 1. Please read and follow Quick and Simple Web APP on Heroku Using Python Flask
Step 2. Once you have certbot installed, run following to get certificate
Use Openssl To Encrypt File
Provide required information when prompted by tool. When asked for domain name, enter FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) of your app created in Step 1. It will ask to log your IP as well to public domain as you are asking for a certificate. After that you will see prompt like following asking
Press Enter to Continue. Do not press enter yet.
Step 3. Now, we are going to use our flask server app to host a page with details mentioned in above pic. I am going to user server.py file to enter details as follow:
Step 4. Run your
server.py file to check it match the expectation mentioned by certbot console output
Step 5. Push your flask server app to Heroku
Letsencrypt Openssl Verify
Step 6. Now, go back to certbot console and hit enter. After this, you would see location of your certificate created by Let’s Encrypt. Let’s Encrypt will create the following certs:
CA and SSL Certificate
Once you get certificates from Let’s Encrypt, you can create Root CA certificate and certificate to use with your application.
Step 1. Create certificate for your application. In order to do that you have to combine
cert.pem. You can use any text editor or command line. Here’s the example of command line approach.
Step 2. In order to generate CA certificate, you need to download IdenTrust DST Root CA X3 from https://www.identrust.com/certificates/trustid/root-download-x3.html. Save it to a file (e.g.
IdenTrustCA.crt) and add
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----- and
-----END CERTIFICATE----- lines.
Step 3. Convert
IdenTrustCA.crt this certificate to pem using openssl
Step 4. Now combine
Letsencrypt Openssl S_client
You should have something like following in your
Step 5. Let’s verify our app certificate with CA certificate
Congratulation now you have a valid certificate for your application.
Local or Dev Machine Host Mapping
You need make sure that your dev machine IP or localhost is mapped to domain name you have used to obtain certificate.
Letsencrypt Openssl How To
You can make entry in your
/etc/hosts file to achieve it